A. Approach and methodology

The reference tool has been designed to be based on real-life experiece of PPP contract management from around the world, based on both extensive data collection as well as interviews with key stakeholders on the selected case studies. It should be used in combination with the selected case studies and data analytics from global desktop research.

In order to capture data and lessons learned representing the full array of PPP projects across different sectors and regions, the following high-level approach was adopted for developing the reference tool:

  1. An overall database of PPP projects was identified, which met the study criteria, defined as:

    • A bespoke definition of PPP, as per the Glossary

    • Global remit comprising 3,736 projects across 137 countries

    • Economic infrastructure, covering transport, power, water and waste

    • Financial close was achieved between 2005 and 2015 (inclusive)
  2. A study sample of approximately 250 randomly selected PPP projects was identified to reflect the PPP definition adopted, sector, region and financial close date distribution of the overall database of PPPs.

  3. Data collection on the study sample of 250 PPPs was performed according to a template, designed to seek data on the prevalence of contract management issues. The results of the data collection exercise are reflected in Appendix A (Data analysis).

  4. The existing literature on contract management of PPPs was examined to develop an understanding of what guidance was currently available, including where there were gaps.

  5. Using the findings from the data collection, 25 projects were selected out of the 250 PPPs and stakeholder interviews were completed to gain further insight into key events that occurred on the projects and to extract leading practices and lessons learned on how those key events were managed in order to develop the ‘Case Studies’. Appendix B (Case Studies) comprises the published Case Studies. Further interviews were carried out with industry experts and PPP units to gain a broader understanding of the common challenges, such as disputes and renegotiations of PPP contracts.

  6. Once a substantial number of Case Studies had been completed and a draft version of the reference tool had been developed, three regional workshops were held, to share the preliminary findings and to gain further insight from PPP practitioners.

The sections below provide greater detail on how the reference tool was developed using the steps summarised above.

The study has some limitations due to the approach adopted and challenges faced during data collection and stakeholder interviews. The limitations are detailed in Section E (Limitations).

B. Data collection on 250 projects

C. Development of Case Studies on 25 projects

D. Consultative workshops

E. Limitations